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my understanding of “lock the knee”

my understanding of “lock the knee”


Oh dear….it’s time discuss the famous phrase ‘lock the knee.’ The phrase that has delivered the hot yoga community countless bouts of scorn and criticism. In my opinion it is the most misunderstood and misinterpreted concept in hot yoga classes today. So misunderstood, actually, that I try to use many different ways of explaining it when I’m teaching as often as I can to help people, especially beginners, find the action of locking the knee safely and properly. It is one of the most challenging things in the world to execute and maintain. As my yoga practice grows and changes, I have realized that there are many many layers to becoming more deeply engaged and aware of the leg/knee and that doing it properly is (just like all the asanas) an ever-expanding and endless exploration of the body.


If you are asking yourself, “What is ‘lock the knee’?” because you’ve never heard a teacher use this phrase before, let me explain…In a lot of hot yoga classes, this phrase is used to urge the practitioner to make their leg straight and fully engaged from the hip to the foot and everything in between. It is used to make sure that practitioners are protecting the knee joint with their strength, especially in standing and balancing poses. It is used to elicit attention and awareness back down into the foundation of the body when it can sometimes get lost in the predicament of balancing (“Please don’t let me fall on the person next to me.”), stretching (“Oh my God, when did I get SO STIFF?”), and weight-bearing (while keeping a most relaxed facial expression, of course). Most people hear this cue and think that it means thrust or shove the knee back as far as it goes, which would be hyperextending the knee joint. This isn’t what teachers mean for you to do.

When a yoga teacher presents this phrase, these are some actions and elements you should try to evoke in your body:yoga-knee-locked

1. A straight standing leg. Not a hyper-extended knee, not a bent knee. Just a simply straight leg. Hip stacked on top of the knee, knee stacked on top of the ankle joint.

2. Use the leg muscles to keep the knee ‘locked’ in this position. Take a 360 degrees tour with your awareness around your knee to see that it is supported the whole way around. It is really easy to access the strength and support in the front of the knee with the quadriceps muscles. The more challenging ways to feel that support are at the inner knee, outer knee and back of the knee.

3. Distribute your body weight equally throughout the bottom foot. This is the key to finding support in those harder to sense areas of the inner, outer and back of the knee. The toes should be spread, with the bottom of the foot open to the earth. Most people sink back into their heel and outside edge of the foot. Which can cause hyperextension at the knee joint and also make it very difficult to balance. When you bring the weight more balanced throughout the foot, what generates that shift is the engagement of more muscles throughout the calf, inner thigh, hip, and even the upper thigh. This creates a lifting sensation of the whole thigh, away from the knee joint. A feeling of elevated spaciousness in the knee is present rather than a sinking and aching feeling into the knee joint.

4. Don’t let your attention waver from these aspects for even a wink, because if you do, one or more of them will disappear. It takes constant attentiveness and tenacity to maintain!



The reason the knee joint is safer to balance on in this locked position is because of the way the knee joint is built. The knee is a hinge joint meant to flex and extend, in order to bring the lower leg forward and backward. When other movements of the lower leg/upper leg relationship occur, this is when injury can happen to the structures that comprise the knee joint. What keeps the knee on the right track are the muscles, their tendons and most of all: the ligaments. The knee is least vulnerable when the leg is straight because the collateral ligaments on the inner and outer knee are the most supportive in this position.

When the knee bends, those two ligaments (LCL and MCL) become more lax and their support of the knee joint greatly diminishes.

lock the knee

This increases the risk of damaging those or other ligaments between the upper and lower leg bones especially while bearing the weight of the entire body on just one leg instead of two. When the knee goes into hyperextension, there isn’t the muscle tone and support to keep space in the knee joint, which puts tremendous pinching pressure onto the meniscus (the cartilaginous pillow between the upper leg bone and the lower leg bone) which can, over time with repeated misuse, tear or wear away.

Yoga is supposed to heal our bodies, right?! So, trying to find strength and support as a balance to going further into depth is the way we keep yoga as a beneficial practice rather than just another mindless activity that causes injury or strain. I didn’t say it was going to be easy, but I will say that it is going to be endlessly challenging and fascinating. The more I learn to notice the detail and subtlety in my hatha yoga practice, the more I learn to be mindful of detail and subtlety in my everyday life. Try to see how the benefits of exploring detail in your yoga practice and body ripple out into your day-to-day existence.

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Torrey Trover

Torrey fell in love with yoga when she was a student at Colorado State University. She is a Bikram Yoga Teacher Training graduate, completed a traditional hatha yoga teacher training in Rishikesh, India and a Yin yoga training in Whistler Canada. She is also a certified Rolfer, in which she completed her training at the Rolf Institute in Boulder, Colorado. Her many hours of study make her the evolation anatomy expert. Over the years, Torrey has taught in various studios in Colorado, New York, Costa Rica, Maui, and Australia. She is very excited to now be a part of the evolation family! She lives in Santa Barbara, but travels around with Mark and Zefea to help expand the ever-growing evolation team. Wherever Torrey finds herself teaching, it is her goal to empower students to use the process of alignment to open up the vast potential that lies beyond the purely physical practice.

  • Kim Wood

    Thank you for this well illustrated, easy to understand description of “lock the knee”.
    I play around with a slightly bent knee during my practice sometimes….wow, what a difference! Not only do I feel unsteady, vulnerable and weak; I also feel myself collapsing slightly into my standing hip, pulling on my foot in my grip (probably looking for some sort of strength (?) and praying!!!!!
    When I lock my knee, there is strength in my entire leg. There is an ease felt throughout my body as I am confident in my base.
    I’ve read other articles you have written and have enjoyed each one. Keep sharing; keep writing!

    • Torrey

      I’m glad it could help you, Kim 🙂

  • tatiana

    This was thoroughly helpful, as I often wondered if my locking of the knee was correct, and this article helped me to realize that I have been hyperextending my leg outward (almost bowed). Correcting this pronto! 🙂

  • Darci

    I like your blog post, however, I don’t understand…. why is the cue still used if it is so widely mis-understood? The cues you described above make sense, and although we don’t have all day to breakdown the pose, we can’t be so ignorant to say that we have to sum it up in one cue. The amazing thing about teaching is the ability to offer cues that are subtlety different each day that teach students awareness in their body, so their practice can not only be their medicine, but also ‘theirs’. I would also like to see citations in your post, I don’t know you as a writer, so you could just be pulling this information out of your ass. Not that I think you are, if you are truly looking to change the opinions of this concept/cue then it should be backed by research based science. I’m sure as a teacher and writer you’ve seen many posts/articles written by people with mis-information. The amazing thing about citing your own work, is that sometimes you prove yourself wrong in doing so that is real learning!

    • Torrey

      Hi Darci,
      Thank you for your interest. As I said in the article, when I teach, I use different phrases and cues to elicit the action of locking the knee. I don’t use those words because of the confusion it creates. I agree with you that teachers should use lots of different ways of describing actions so that students can feel it in their own bodies.

      In response to your questions about citations, I’m not exactly sure what I would cite as I’m explaining simple anatomy of the human body. Most of what I’ve learned comes from my studies at the Rolf Institute of Structural Integration, in which I’ve studied anatomy extensively.


  • polly Schmid

    i have an idea , avoid saying lock your knee, too many people hyper extend it. There is plenty of others ways to say that with a much safer approach

    • Carla White

      Great idea! Only problem is Bikram is an exact script. I think this is where the problem comes in…

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  • Sue Bastian

    Thank you very much for this wonderful and clear article. I’ve looked long and hard for a good explanation to this question and yours is everything anyone could want.

  • Aaron Wiener

    Great article. I’m one of those people that has been focusing so much on locking my knee, that I am having really bad pain in my knees due to hyperextention. I’m having a lot of trouble during the standing series. Any recommendations on next steps for me? Should I not do the standing series? Take a week off from bikram (would hate to do that because I love it so much)? Is there something specific I can do during the standing series that will help until the soreness in my knees heal? Any help or ideas would be very much appreciated. Looks like this was posted a while ago so don’t know if this comment will be seen